Flap reconstruction is a type of breast reconstruction that involves transplanting tissue from a different part of the patient’s body to the breast area. Usually, the tissues of the back, thighs, or buttocks are used for this process. The donor tissue is typically cut off from the original site and a new blood supply is connected. Sometimes, the original blood supply is instead retained by tunneling the blood vessels under the skin.
A muscle flap called latissimus dorsi is most commonly used for autologous reconstruction. It is found on the back and is a large flat muscle. It can be easily transplanted to the breast area without significant loss in function and with the existing blood supply. In order to avoid dehiscence or necrosis at the donor site, a layer of fat has to be retained while extracting the tissue.